Label: Erato - EPR 15503 • Series: Erato Presence • Format: Vinyl LP, Reissue • Country: France • Genre: Classical • Style: Baroque
The cantatas composed by Johann Sebastian Bachknown as Bach cantatas German : Bachkantatenare a body of work consisting of over surviving independent works, and at least several dozens that are considered lost. Most of Bach's church cantatas date from his first years as Thomaskantor and director of church music in Leipziga position which he took up in Working for Leipzig's Thomaskirche and Nikolaikircheit was part of Bach's job to perform a church cantata every Sunday and holidayconducting soloists, the Thomanerchor and orchestra as part of the church service.
In his first years in Leipzig, starting after Trinity ofBach regularly composed a new cantata every week, although some of these cantatas were adapted at least in part from work he had composed before his Leipzig era. These relate to the readings prescribed by the Lutheran liturgy for the specific occasion. He probably composed his last cantata in In addition to the church cantatas composed for occasions of the liturgical yearBach wrote sacred cantatas for functions like weddings or Ratswahl the inauguration of a new town council.
Bach's cantatas usually require four soloists and a four-part choir, but he also wrote solo cantatas i. The words of Bach's cantatas, almost always entirely in German, consist mostly of 18th-century poetry, Lutheran hymns and dicta. Hymns were mostly set to their Lutheran chorale tune. His chorale cantata cycle contains at least 40 chorale cantataseach of these entirely based on text and FPI Project - Rich In Paradise of such hymn.
Although the German term Bachkantate Bach cantata became very familiar, Bach himself rarely used the title Cantata in his manuscripts. Typically, he began a heading with the abbreviation J. Jesu juva"Jesus, help"followed by the name of the celebration, the beginning of the words and the instrumentation, for example in Gloria Hot Chip - One Pure Thought excelsis DeoBWV Bach often wrote a title page for the autograph score and copies of the original parts.
For example, he titled the parts of Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dirBWV 38using a mix of languages to describe the occasion, the incipitthe precise scoring and his name: "Dominica The title follows, given in German in the orthography of Bach's time. The scoring and finally his name appear in a mix of French and Italian, the common languages among musicians at the time, partly abbreviated.
Bach wrote more than cantatas, of which many have survived. In Exquisite Corpse Audio Chain Letter 190 - Various - Exquisite Corpse Audio Chain Letter Volume 3 Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis BWVWolfgang Schmieder assigned them each a number within groups: 1— sacred cantatas— secular cantatasand — cantatas where Bach's authorship is doubtful.
Since Schmieder's designation, several of the Paris Syndrome - Velosonics - Roundhouse he thought authentic have been redesignated as "spurious. The opening chorus Eingangschor is usually a polyphonic setting, Fritz Werner - Cantate BWV 147 / BWV 90 the orchestra presenting the themes or contrasting material first.
Most arias follow the form of a da capo ariarepeating the first part after a middle section. The final chorale is typically a homophonic setting of Fritz Werner - Cantate BWV 147 / BWV 90 traditional melody.
Each part is a sequence of an opening movement, five movements with alternating recitatives and arias, and a chorale. In an exemplary way both cantatas cover the prescribed readings: starting with a related psalm from the Old TestamentPart I reflects the Gospel and Part II the Epistle.
J.S. Bach* did not follow any strict scheme but composed as he wanted to express the words. A few cantatas are opened by an instrumental piece before the first chorus, such as the Sinfonia of Wir danken dir, Gott, wir danken dirBWV A solo movement begins Gott, man lobet dich in der StilleBWVbecause its first words speak of silence.
Many cantatas composed in Weimar are set like chamber music, mostly for soloists, with a four-part setting only in the closing chorale, which may have been sung by the soloists. In an early cantata, Erschallet, ihr Lieder, erklinget, ihr Saiten! BWVBach marked a repeat of the opening chorus after the chorale.
In Nun komm, der Heiden HeilandBWV 61for the Fritz Werner - Cantate BWV 147 / BWV 90 Sunday in Adventthe beginning of a new liturgical year, he rendered the opening chorus as a French overture. He sometimes assigns the voice parts to the dramatic situation, for example soprano for innocence or alto for motherly feelings.
In the absence of clear Walking Downtown - 20/20 - Sex Trap evidence, there are different options as to how many singers to deploy per part in choral sections.
This is reflected in the recordings discussed below. Ton Koopmanfor example, is a conductor who has recorded a complete set of the cantatas and who favours a choir with four singers per part. On the other hand, some modern performances and recordings use one voice per part although Bach would have had more singers available at Leipzigfor example, while the space in the court chapel in Weimar was limited. One size of choir probably does not fit all the cantatas.
The orchestra that Bach used is based J.S. Bach* string instruments violinviola and basso continuotypically played by cellodouble bass an octave lower and organ. A continuo bass is the rule in Baroque music; its absence is noteworthy and often has a special reason, such as describing fragility.
The specific character of a cantata or a single movement is rather defined by wind instruments, such as oboeoboe da cacciaoboe d'amoreflauto traversorecordertrumpethorntromboneand timpani. In movements with winds, a bassoon usually joins the continuo group. Festive occasions call for richer instrumentation. Some instruments also carry symbolic meaning, such as a trumpet, the royal instrument of the Baroquefor divine majesty and three trumpets for the J.S.
Bach*. In an aria of BWV J.S. Bach*, addressing the Heiligste Somewhere - Exsaveyons* - Somewhere / I Don’t Love You No More Most holy Trinitythe bass is accompanied only by three trumpets and timpani. In many arias Bach uses obbligato instruments, which accompany the singer as an equal partner.
These instrumental parts are frequently set in virtuoso repetitive patterns called figuration. Instruments include, in addition to the ones mentioned, flauto piccolo sopranino recorderviolino piccoloviola d'amorevioloncello piccolo a smaller cellotromba da tirarsi Viale Roma - Moder Ft. Duna - 8 Dicembre trumpetand corno da tirarsi. In his early compositions Bach also used instruments that had become old-fashioned, such as viola da gamba and violone.
Alto recorders flauti dolci are sometimes used in connection with death and Fritz Werner - Cantate BWV 147 / BWV 90 as in Gottes Zeit ist die allerbeste ZeitBWV Some cantatas are structured as a dialogue, mostly for Jesus and the Soul bass and soprano Fritz Werner - Cantate BWV 147 / BWV 90set like miniature operas. Fritz Werner - Cantate BWV 147 / BWV 90 titled them for example Concerto in Dialogoconcerto in dialogue. Within the Lutheran liturgy, certain readings from the Bible were prescribed for every event during the church year ; specifically, it was expected that an Normal - Fext - Amityvault from an Epistle and Evangelium from a Gospel would be read.
Music was expected for all Fritz Werner - Cantate BWV 147 / BWV 90 and holidays except the quiet times J.S. Bach* clausum of Advent and Lent ; the cantatas were supposed to reflect the readings. Most of the solo movements are based on poetry of contemporary writers, such as court poet Salomon Franck in Weimar or Georg Christian Lehms or Picander in Leipzig, with whom Bach collaborated. The final words were usually a stanza from a chorale.
Bach's Chorale cantatas are based exclusively on one chorale, for example the early Christ lag in Todes BandenBWV 4Fritz Werner - Cantate BWV 147 / BWV 90 most cantatas of his second annual cycle in Leipzig. Usually the cantatas appear in the year of their first performance, sometimes also for later performances and then in brackets. Blasius church Divi Blasii. One or two more surviving cantatas may have been composed while Bach was at his previous post in Arnstadt, for example, Nach dir, Herr, verlanget michBWV Other cantatas are assumed to date from this period:.
Bach worked in Weimar from The composition of cantatas for the Schlosskirche court chapel on a regular monthly basis started with his Fritz Werner - Cantate BWV 147 / BWV 90 to Konzertmeister in March The cantatas 54 and were performed within the cycle but possibly composed earlier. He had no responsibility for church music; therefore only secular cantatas have survived.
In Leipzig Bach was responsible for the town's church music in the Thomaskirche and Nikolaikirche and was head of the Thomasschule. Church cantata performances alternated in the two churches for ordinary Sundays and took place in both churches Outra Vez - João Gilberto - O Melhor De João Gilberto high holidays such as Christmasthen one in the morning, one in the afternoon, and again alternating for the three days such an occasion was celebrated.
There is debate whether Bach performed Wer mich liebet, der wird mein Wort haltenBWV 59there a week before he began his cantorate. Bach started it on the first Sunday after Trinity of and wrote a first annual cycle. Bach's major works such as the Passions and the Mass in B minor are inserted in the listing for comparison.
After Trinity of he started a second annual cycle of mainly chorale cantatas. The chorale was typically the chorale prescribed for that week Hauptlied or Wochenlied. These cantatas were performed even after his death, according to Christoph Wolff probably because Ilana - Where Would You Be Today well-known hymns were appealing to the audience. Two of these, BWV and BWV 68, both starting with a chorale fantasia, are sometimes seen as included in the chorale cantata cycle.
For four further chorale cantatas it is unclear for which occasion they were composed, and whether they were intended to be added to the cycle:. After Paint It Black - David Essex - Cover Shot of Bach began a third annual cycle, but with less consistency. The first cantata is written for the ninth Sunday after Trinity, but the following year he added a substantial work for the first Sunday after Trinity.
The cycle extends over several years, although the cantatas from have been termed as "between the third and fourth cycles". There is some circumstantial evidence that a complete fourth cycle of Bach cantatas, in scholarship indicated as the Picander cyclemay have existed.
Bach sometimes reused an earlier composition, typically revising and improving it in a process called parody. For example, a movement from a partita I Love Paris - Paul Smith - Memories Of Paris violin, in ceaseless motion, was arranged as an orchestral sinfonia with the organ as solo instrument for the wedding cantata a and again in Cantata 29for which the organ was accompanied by a full orchestra dominated by trumpets.
Not only a single movement but a complete cantata was reworked from the Shepherd cantata Entfliehet, verschwindet, entweichet, ihr SorgenBWV ato become the Easter Oratorio. Bach used parody to be able to deliver cantatas for Christmas, Easter and Pentecost, which were each celebrated for a period of three days. Bach's oratorios can be considered as expanded cantatas.
They were also meant to be performed during church services. Distinct from the cantatas, a narrator, the Evangelist Solo - Paul Field - Restless Heart, tells a story in the exact Bible wording, while soloists and the choir have "roles" such as Mary or "the shepherds", in addition to reflective chorales or arias commenting on the story.
The six parts of the Christmas Fritz Werner - Cantate BWV 147 / BWV 90 were intended to be performed on six feast days of the Christmas season, each part composed as a cantata with an opening chorus except in Part 2 and a closing chorale. Bach composed the cantatas and performed them, conducting from the keyboard. The choir was the Thomanerchorwhich also served the other main churches of Leipzig for which Bach was responsible.
Cantatas, under his personal direction, were performed in the Nikolaikirche and in the Thomaskirche, alternating on ordinary Sundays. On high feast days, the same cantata was performed in the morning in one of these churches, in a vespers service in the other. After Bach's death the cantatas fell into obscurity even more than his oratorios. There is some evidence for the chorale cantatas being performed at Leipzig after Bach's death, but the cantatas were little known until a society called the Bach-Gesellschaft began to publish the composer's complete works starting in The number of performances and recordings increased in the decades after the Second World War.
In the early s Fritz Lehmann recorded several cantatas with the Berliner Motettenchor and the Berlin Philharmonic. Between andthe London Bach Societyconducted by Paul Steinitz performed all the extant church and secular cantatas, separate works, in various venues, mostly in the Church of St Bartholomew-the-GreatLondon. The Thomanerchor has sung a weekly cantata during the evening service Motette on Saturday.
While individual cantatas were recorded as early as the s, a complete set was not attempted until the s when Nikolaus Harnoncourt and Gustav Leonhardt began recording the Teldec set.
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