Joshua Krug - Pekinška Patka - Plitka Poezija White February 11, — September 5, was an American singer, guitarist, songwriter, actor and civil rights activist. He also recorded under the names Pinewood Tom and Tippy Barton in the s.
White grew up in the South during the s and s. He became a prominent race records artist, with a prolific output of recordings in genres including Piedmont bluescountry bluesgospel musicand social protest songs.
InWhite moved to New York, and within a decade his fame had spread widely. His repertoire expanded to include urban bluesjazztraditional folk songsand political protest songs, and he was in demand as an actor on radio, Broadwayand film. However, White's anti- segregationist and international human rights political stance presented in many of his recordings and in his speeches at rallies were subsequently used by McCarthyites as a pretext for labeling him a communist Molly Malone - Josh White - Molly Malone (Shellac) slander and harass him.
From through the mids, White was caught up in the anti-communist Red Scareand as a consequence his career was damaged. However White's musical style would go on to influence several generations of musical artists.
His father told him that he was named after the Biblical character Joshua of the Old Testament. His mother introduced him to music when Molly Malone - Josh White - Molly Malone (Shellac) was five years old, at which age he began singing in his church's choir.
White's father threw a white bill collector out of his home infor which he was beaten so badly that he nearly died, and then was locked up in a Soft And Wet - Prince - The Hits 1 institution, where he died nine years Molly Malone - Josh White - Molly Malone (Shellac).
Two months after his father had been taken away from the family, White left home with Blind Man Arnold, a black street singer, whom he agreed to lead Little Noise (PV) - Various - Majikick Clip Sapp Vob.2 (DVDr) the South and for whom he would collect coins after performances.
Arnold would then send White's mother two dollars a week. Arnold soon realized that he could profit from this gifted boy, who quickly learned He Was Dressd In Shirt Of Doe-Skin - Samuel Coleridge-Taylor - Hiawathas Wedding Feast dance, sing, and play the tambourine.
Over the next eight years, he rented the boy's services to other blind street singers, including Blind Blake and Blind Joe Taggartand in time White mastered the varied guitar stylings of all of them. Bali HaÏ - Frank Sinatra - Lover order to appear sympathetic to the onlookers tossing coins, the old men kept White shoeless and in ragged short pants until he was sixteen years old. At night he slept in cotton fields or in horse stables, often on an empty stomach, while his employer slept in a black hotel.
While guiding Taggart inWhite arrived in ChicagoIllinois. Mayo Williamsa producer for Paramount Recordsrecognized White's talents and began using him as a session guitarist.
He was still shoeless and sleeping in horse stables, with all his payments for recordings going to Taggart and Arnold. After Williams left Paramount to start his own label in Chicago, he threatened that if Taggart did not pay White for his recording services he would call the authorities and have Taggart arrested for indentured servitude and keeping the boy out of school.
For a few months after Taggart released him from servitude, White shared a room with Blind Blake at Williams's home before finding his own room in a boarding house.
Finally, he was being paid for his recordings and for the first time in his life was able to buy proper clothes and shoes. For the next two years, White continued an active recording schedule in Chicago, until he had saved enough money to return to Greenville and take care of his mother and younger siblings. After several months of searching, they found him recovering from a broken leg at his mother's home in Greenville.
They persuaded her to sign a recording contract for her underage son, promising that they would record only religious songs and not the "devil's music" the blues.
In a few months, having recorded his repertoire of religious songs, White was persuaded by ARC to record blues songs and to work as a session musician for other artists. White, 18 years old and still underage, signed a new contract under the name Pinewood Tom in This name was used only on his blues recordings.
ARC also released his recordings under the name Tippy Barton during this period. In Februaryhe punched his left hand through a glass door during a bar fight, and the hand became infected with gangrene. Doctors recommended amputation of the hand, which White repeatedly refused. Amputation was averted, but his chording hand was left immobile. He retreated from his recording career to become a dock worker, an elevator operator, and a building superintendent. During the time when his hand was lame, he squeezed a small rubber ball to try to revive it.
One night during a card game, White's left hand was revived completely. He immediately began practicing playing the guitar and soon put together a group, Josh White and His Carolinians, with his brother Billy and close friends Carrington Lewis, Sam Garyand Bayard Rustin.
They soon began playing private parties in Harlem. For the past six months, DePaur and the producers of a Broadway musical in development, John Henryhad been searching America for an actor, singer, and guitarist to play the lead role of Blind Lemon, a street minstrel who wandered back and forth across the stage narrating the story in song.
Their initial auditions with native New York singers were unsuccessful, so they looked through previous race record releases to find a suitable artist. They eventually narrowed their search down to two people, Pinewood Tom and The Singing Christian, both pseudonyms used by White.
The musical did not have a long run, but it boosted White's career. Ray later produced live engagements and recordings for two historic duos of which White was a member. The first of these was the duo of White and Lead Belly, who had a six-month engagement at New York's Village Vanguard nightclub, teaming the young and virile city blues singer—the "Joe Louis of the Blues Guitar"—with the older, white-haired country blues singer—the "King of the 12 String Guitar" appellations given to them by Woody Guthrie in his Daily Worker newspaper review of their show.
Forty-five years after the event, Max Gordonthe owner of the Village Vanguardwrote in his memoir Live at the Village Vanguard"The greatest conversations ever heard at the Vanguard was the carving out of the guitars between Lead Belly and Josh Molly Malone - Josh White - Molly Malone (Shellac). The second duo produced by Ray teamed White with Libby Holmana white "torch singer" of the s, who was branded an immoral woman for Acupuncture Amphitheatre - Gretschen Hofner - Maria Callous killing her millionaire husband.
Their pairing created more publicity and controversy for White, as they were the first mixed-race male and female artists to perform together, record together and tour together in previously segregated venues across the United States.
They continued performing off and on for the next six years, while making an album and a film together. Despite a letter of recommendation from Eleanor Rooseveltthey were repeatedly rejected as "too controversial", considering that the U. White refashioned his music, performance and image with his re-emergence on the entertainment scene in and The industry and audiences alike no longer saw a southern black country boy, but instead a mature, self-educated, articulate, outspoken and sophisticated year-old man, who possessed a strikingly handsome and sexual bearing and personality both on and off the stage.
He soon became the first blues performer to attract a large white and middle-class African-American Slave/Slave (Incubite Remix) - Suicidal Romance - Memories Behind Closed Curtains (Bonus Tracks Vers and was Molly Malone - Josh White - Molly Malone (Shellac) first African-American artist to perform in previously segregated venues in the US, as he transcended the typical racial and social barriers of the time who associated blues with a rural and working-class African-American audience, while performing in nightclubs and theaters during the s and s.
During the s, as a matinee idol with magnetic sexual charisma and a commanding stage presence, White not only was an international star of recordings, concerts, nightclubs, radio, film, and Broadway but also achieved a unique position for an African American of the segregated era by becoming accepted and befriended by white society, aristocracy, European royalty, and America's ruling family, the Roosevelts.
One of his most popular recordings during the s was " One Meatball ", lyrics a song about a "little man" who could afford only one meatball. When offered the song he immediately recorded it, and it became the first million-selling record by a Molly Malone - Josh White - Molly Malone (Shellac) African-American artist; according to his biographer, Elijah Waldit was "Josh's biggest hit by far". White's hits from the s include "Jelly, Jelly", a song with sexually charged lyrics, composed by Earl Hines and Billy Eckstine ; "The House I Live In What Is America to Me ", a patriotic American song during World War II, written by Earl Robinson and Lewis Allanwith lyrics describing what White hoped America would become after the war and government-sanctioned segregation ended White had the first hit Brian Hyland - Ginny Come Lately with the song, which he then taught to Frank Sinatra for his MGM film short about the songwhich won an Academy Award ; " Waltzing Matilda ", an Australian folk song taught to White by an Australian sailor backstage at the Cafe Society White re-arranged the song in a waltz tempo and then donated his services to the government by recording it the next week for the government's V Disc label to boost the morale of the troops overseas; it was an immediate hit ; " St.
White recorded in various contexts, sometimes accompanied only by his guitar and sometimes playing with others backing him on guitar and string bass or piano or with jazz Éternel Instant Présent - Ariane Moffatt - Tous Les Sens, gospel vocal groups, Molly Malone - Josh White - Molly Malone (Shellac) a swing jazz band, as in his popular recording "I Left a Good Deal in Mobile".
He performed and recorded with the jazz pianist Mary Lou Williamsand besides his duets with Libby Holman and with Lead Belly, he recorded and performed duets with Buddy Moss and often performed duets with his friend Billie Holiday. He also recorded songs of social and political protest with Woody Guthrie, Pete SeegerBurl Ivesand Lee Hays in their folk cooperative group the Almanac Singers and in the later group People's Songswhich consisted of the core of musicians and activists Blow Monkeys* - Digging Your Scene formed Almanac Singers.
Primus had choreographed several performance pieces to Molly Malone - Josh White - Molly Malone (Shellac) music of White, and on this tour they performed these numbers together. She performed these pieces in concerts for the rest of her career. As an actor between andWhite appeared in dozens of radio dramas, including the classic Norman Corwin plays, and star or co-star on the New York stage in three musicals and three dramatic plays, in addition to appearing in several films.
Lead Belly stayed in California until the end of the year, hoping to be involved in the project, but the film never got past the preproduction stage. As a leading artist and activist of the era, who had begun writing and recording political protest songs as early as and who would speak and sing at human rights rallies, White was prominently associated with the civil rights movement of the s. This activism made White's politics suspect in Hollywood during the McCarthy era and, accordingly, The Walking Hills was his final film role.
It opened in late with a three-month engagement of the Fletcher Henderson OrchestraBillie Holiday and comedian Jack Gilfordimmediately making it New York's hottest club. As soon as Josephson heard White and saw the charisma he Molly Malone - Josh White - Molly Malone (Shellac), he told Hammond that White was going to become the first black male sex symbol in America. It was Josephson who decided at that first encounter, on the stage apparel he would have designed for White—which would become a trademark for years to come—a black velvet shirt open to the stomach and silk slacks.
He had remarkable success in popularizing recordings in diverse musical genres, which ranged from his original repertoire of Negro blues, gospel and protest songs to Broadway show tunes, cabaret, pop, and Molly Malone - Josh White - Molly Malone (Shellac) American, English and Australian folk songs.
He was thought to have had numerous romantic liaisons with wealthy society women, singers, and Hollywood actresses, but the rumors were never substantiated.
The women in question always referred to White as their close friend, and Lena Horne and Eartha Kitt also referred to him as a mentor. However, because of the club's unique social status of mixing the races, it also became a haven for New York's social progressives, whose politics leaned to the left. As it played a vital role in White's ascendancy to stardom, it would also one day play a crucial role in his fall from grace.
Beginning inWhite established a Survival - Dawning / Shadow and close relationship with the family of Franklin and Eleanor Rooseveltand would become the closest African-American confidant to the President of the United States ; and the Roosevelts were the godparents of Josh White, Jr. In JanuaryWhite performed at the President's Inauguration, and two months later, he released another highly controversial record album, Southern Exposurewhich included six anti-segregationist songs with liner notes written by the African-American writer Richard Wrightand Molly Malone - Josh White - Molly Malone (Shellac) subtitle of which was An Album of Jim Crow Blues.
Like the Chain Gang album, and with revelatory yet inflammatory songs such as "Uncle Sam Says", "Jim Crown Train", "Bad Housing Blues", "Defense Factory Blues", "Southern Exposure", and "Hard Time Blues", it also was forced upon [ clarification needed ] the southern white radio stations and record stores, caused outrage in the South and also was brought to the attention of President Roosevelt.
However, instead of making White persona non grata in segregated America, it resulted in Roosevelt asking White to become the first African-American artist to give a command performance at the White Housein Am I right? President, I wrote that song to you after seeing how my brother was treated in the segregated section of Fort Dix army camp However that wasn't the first song I wrote to you InI wrote and recorded a song called 'Low Cotton,' about the plight of Negro cotton pickers down South, and in the lyrics I made an appeal directly to you to help their situation.
A friendship developed, and five more command performances followed, in addition to two appearances at the Inaugurations of and ; and the White family would spend many Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays with the Roosevelts at their Hyde Park, New York mansion Springwood. The President sent White to give concerts overseas as a "goodwill ambassador", and he was often referred to in the press as the "Presidential Minstrel".
InEleanor Roosevelt then the United Nations ambassador in charge of war relief and White made a historical speaking and concert tour of the capitals of Europe to lift the spirits of those war-torn countries. The tour built to such proportions that when they arrived in Stockholmthe presentation had to be moved from the Opera House to the city's soccer stadium where 50, came out in the pouring rain to hear Mrs.
Roosevelt speak and White perform. So, that's a song I will sing back home until I never have to sing it again, but for you, I would now like to sing Molly Malone - Josh White - Molly Malone (Shellac) sister song, written by the Molly Malone - Josh White - Molly Malone (Shellac) man 'The House I Live In'.
As an actor, White acted several more times on Broadway in the late s. It won an award at that year's Venice Film Festival. He also appeared in John Sturges' western The Walking Hills with Randolph Scott, Ella Raines, Edgar BuchananŚmierć Ptaka - Piotr Ruciński - Lets Play A Blues Arthur Kennedy, in which his character, an itinerant musician, was not a stereotype but on an equal footing with the white characters.
He was still young and very handsome and it hard not to speculate on what might have been had the blacklist not put an end to his budding movie career. White had reached the zenith of his career when touring with Eleanor Roosevelt on a celebrated and triumphant Goodwill tour of Europe. He had been hosted by the continent's She Wants You (Cevin Fisher Instinctive Club Mix) - Billie* - She Wants You ministers and royal families, and had just performed before 50, cheering fans at Stockholm's soccer stadium.
Amidst this tour, while in Paris in JuneWhite received a call from Mary Chase, his manager in New York, telling him that Red Channels who had been sending newsletters to the media since about White and other artists who they warned were subversive had just released and distributed a Where Or When - Various - Best Of Blue Note magazine with subversive details regarding artists from the entertainment and media industries whom they labeled communist sympathizers.
White's name was prominent on this list. There never had been an official blacklist—until now. White immediately went to discuss the situation with Mrs. Roosevelt—to ask her advice and help.
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